Answered By: Erin Mooney
Last Updated: Feb 20, 2015     Views: 91

Chicago format is typically used in history and other humanities disciplines. There are two types of Chicago format:

  • The author-date style uses parenthetical citations, which means that the citation information is within parentheses beside the quoted or paraphrased information.
  • The note-bibliography (NB) style requires the use of footnotes or endnotes, which means that the citation information is either at the foot of the page or at the end of the article and is noted at the end of the quoted or paraphrased text with a number in superscript. 

For help with Chicago style, see the following:

  1. The Chicago Manual of Style Online.
  2. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations [Turabian], Reference Desk LB2369 .T8 2007
  3. The Chicago Manual of Style, Reference Desk Z253 .U69 2010
  4. Purdue's Online Writing Lab Chicago style page.
  5. A quick, printable reference to the Turabian style from Ohio State University.
  6. You can copy and paste a reference cited in Chicago style directly from many of the library databases and from Google Scholar.
  7. You can also use a citation manager software, like EasyBib, Zotero, or EndNote.


Thanks go to the Portland State University Library for sharing their Library DIY idea with us!

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